Freedom, equality and democracy: basic principles of the Argentine people
Three major principles have guided the lives of our people's freedom, equality and democracy.
For the revolutionaries of 1810 freedom meant not only national emancipation, but the individual stages in racial, economic and political. Equality meant the repeal of all hitherto existing privileges and denying that might arise in the future. Democracy, born of freedom and equality, assuring the performance of both the majority will of the people.
For these three principles could be enunciated and taxes have been necessary over the centuries and in all latitudes, millions of people suffer slavery, servitude and despotism.
Our country was born in the happy time that was an end to such horrors. But as difficult as it is the conquest of freedom, equality and democracy, is the preservation of these priceless assets. As organic health, man must take care of their health policy, and neither can be maintained without freedom.
From 1810 to 1829 did learning our people freedom. Her decision to become independent from abroad, but did not know how he would govern. In countless fields of war lost and won battles, the last gave him the final victory. Before your fate is decided, civil strife began. Argentines have a common sense, but between them were ignored. It was the boundless desert country, inhabited largely by indigenous hardened. Very few cities and villages separated by vast distances, gave a vague idea of civilization. In each exercised by the government who seemed better equipped to defend the community against the potential dangers: first, that of the native Indian raid, then the leader of the rival. Little did Buenos Aires, the capital of the viceroyalty extinct, which owns the port that connected the country with Europe.
As was the cradle of the revolution liberating custodian of his spirit was believed, as had been the seat of the Spanish government, the right to be attributed also to the newly formed nation. Wary of such centralization, it rose against the isolated inland populations. The ideas of the revolution had arrived a few, but all had an instinct for freedom. With the latter fought against each other, while some tried unsuccessfully to form the State Constitution.
From the terrifying anarchy emerged a strong man. He believed in the beginning of May and all those who supported the hated freedom. It was the first tyrant. To seat of feudal power he used the popular masses. It was true of other despots of all time. He hated the heroes of emancipation, imbued with the doctrines in Europe and America shattered the absolute governments. Calificábase of "restorer", and it was, in fact, the dogma that seemed closed cases since 1776 or since 1789. Dominated by the terror of the province of Buenos Aires, and also by the cunning, the rest of the country. However, it failed to pacify. Against him stood up, again and again, the lovers of freedom, who beat them cruelly. Midway through the last century, their power seemed unshakable, but soon after the Big Army defeated Urquiza in home.
Then the town resumed his interrupted learning. I knew this time it was bloody despotism and wanted never to be returned to him. Dictóse and the National Constitution of 1856, inspired by the pain suffered by the wisdom of reflection and hope to a country of dignity and justice for all "insiders and outsiders, united in a common desire of human brotherhood.
That Constitution, said Jose Nicolas Matienzo, "is without doubt the greatest work of political wisdom that has occurred in Argentina. Contains the expression of all liberal and republican principles that theoretically eminent men have professed and political parties since the revolution of independence, and yet fits the facts and the experience gained during the tumultuous times of 1810 that mediate until 1852. In a word: it combines the ideal reality. "
He assured the people of the country, whether native or foreign, the rights to work and perform any lawful industry; to navigate and trade; to petition the authorities, to enter, remain in, travel and leave the Argentine territory, to publish their ideas through the press without prior censorship of using and disposing of his property, to associate for useful purposes; to profess freely their religion, to teach and learn. Finally abolished slavery, denied the privileges of birth and blood and proclaimed freedom before the law. Established that foreigners enjoy in the territory of the Nation all the civil rights of citizens. And to prevent the excesses of power provided that "Congress can not grant the national executive or provincial legislatures to the provincial governors, extraordinary powers or the sum of government may not grant submission or supremacy, of which life , honor or wealth of the Argentine people will be at the mercy of government or individual. " It was the experience of what has already suffered and the prevention of what could be repeated if some evil Argentine would establish a new tyranny.
For nearly a century, the 1953 Constitution served the progress of our country. Under his admirable arrangements was organized government and the people could make the learning of democracy.
Even the most remote villages of the world came, one way or another, the news that in the far south of America was a promised land that could be home to all. The persecuted by racial, political or religious, the insulted and injured, workers no chance to rise economically and socially, those who had only closed or darkened horizon, thought of this generous country that offered its fertile land to the efforts of all men of the universe, beliefs respected and ensured justice.
Of the cities, towns and inland at almost all European countries to the ports were those who wanted to enjoy such extraordinary privileges. They left loved ones and places, perhaps never to see them pass more ilusionaos with the conquest of their land assets could never achieve. They belonged to ancient civilizations, but in many cases lacked elementary education. Knew how to work, however, were sustained and courageous, not afraid of the unknown that wide sea would sail in fragile vessels, if the solitude of the desert lands that expected by the end of the trip. So come millions of men and women, and here were the parents of Argentines, many of which reached the highest ranks of government, militia and the Church, shone in science, in literature, in industry, in the commerce and society, partly because they found some obstacles and they all contributed to his success in life.
Many citizens of today very largely descendants of these foreigners. Little do they know the delay that a century ago, lived our country (1). The Revolutionary War, civil strife and tyranny of Rosas had impeded their development in accordance with the progressive momentum of the world.
The population was just over one million inhabitants. Buenos Aires alone deserved the name of city. Inside alzabas five or six discrete populations: Córdoba, Santa Fe, Mendoza, Tucuman, Salta, Paraná. Rosario was a little over four thousand inhabitants. La Plata did not exist. Communications between these urban centers were few and very slow.
Livestock, especially agriculture, were in their infancy, the same mining, industries were nascent.
Six years after the fall of Rosas and progress was evident and deepened with the restoration of national unity. Only stopped for a while during the war with Paraguay, but resumed with greater energy just peace was signed. He made the conquest of the wilderness by civilization, and the natives who were away and began ravaging the exploitation of vast plains.
After 1880 the development of the country was prodigious. The political ideas, economic and social given by the illustrious generation of 1837-Echeverría, Alberdi, Sarmiento, Miter, Vicente Fidel Lopez, Juan Maria Gutierrez found on the next-of Avellaneda, Roca, Pellegrini, Roque Saez Pena - its zealous executors. All had to enrich the country: of property, first, because they are the easiest to get into our fertile land and because they are more likely the achievement of others, the popular education, then, because that was fundamental to the exercise of democracy and the spiritual formation of our people. Grew considerably older populations, the small town of Rosario in a very few years became the second city of the Republic was founded La Plata, Bahía Blanca and grew throughout the country emerged or developed new centers: San Fernando, Rio IV , Hope, Strength, San Rafael, Neuquén and many cities in all provinces. In them and in smaller centers and paragraphs, a school founded and thousands of teachers performed the miracle of exterminating almost completely illiterate. He built bridges, dams, roads, hospitals, museums, and monumental public buildings. Railroad tracks were laid throughout the country, established new universities and technical studies, began the exploitation of oil, developed industries, increased trade and published some of the largest dailies in the world.
Upon the expiry in 1910 the centenary of the May Revolution the country took stock of their activities, with the exception of the United States, any nation on earth had progressed so much in so little time. The name of Argentina, of singular clarity and beauty, meant honor and generosity, work and justice, wealth and progress. It was among her sisters of Latin America safer future and gave an example of what should be done to emerge to the plane of history. I was on "life up", said a great Spanish writer. The poets sang, the economists studying the honored foreign rulers. In theaters came the most celebrated artists of the world in its universities were teaching the most eminent teachers and their tribunes discoursed most notorious politicians of Europe and America.
Amid the general optimism and euphoria reported some of our compatriots vulnerable aspects of our development. The torrential immigration had enriched themselves by their capital and labor, but also mischaracterize a bit. Political institutions, admirable for its doctrinal conception, were marred by vicious practices which deprive people of their influence in the government of the nation. Periodic crises stemming from that, did reappear "the ghost of the old" regression and sensing the possibility of new tyrannies.
It was necessary, therefore, to spiritualize the country and provide national consciousness through knowledge of its history and its ideals of life. It was necessary, also correct for all the corruption practiced without interruption election by men and parties to seize power. It was necessary at the same time create the civic and patriotic spirit to look after the common treasure of the liberal and democratic institutions established in the century of struggle and pain.
Education reached first, and electoral reform by President Saenz Pena, the second. Unfortunately, we could not achieve the latter. Factors of various kinds denatured after the promising achievements. The "national restoration" driven before 1910, two decades later diverted towards xenophobia and reactionary anti-democratic. The freedom of elections was mocked by those who attacked the sanctity of the ballot again and corrupt political practices. Since then she saw the possibility of a serious institutional crisis.